Is assistant director of the British Institute of Persian Studies in Tehran, Iran until 1968.
Obtains a Doctor of Philosophy from Oxford University.
Teaches as an assistant professor of anthropology at the University of Pennsylvania until 1974.
Publishes “Population Growth: Anthropological Implications.”
Publishes “The Cultural Ecology of Pastoral Nomads.”
Teaches as an associate professor of anthropology at the University of Pennsylvania until 1989.
Is an advisor in the Department of the Environment for the Iranian Office of the Prime Minister until 1977.
Is a senior advisor to the Secretary-General of the United Nations Conference on Desertification in Nairobi, Kenya until 1978.
Publishes “Ecology in Development. A Rationale for Three-Dimensional Policy.”
Is chair of the Anthropology Graduate Group at the University of Pennsylvania until 1988.
Is director of the Middle East Center at the University of Pennsylvania until 1995.
Serves as a board member of the American Council of Overseas Research Centers until 2005.
Teaches as a full professor of anthropology at the University of Pennsylvania until retiring in 2021.
Serves as vice president of the American Research Institute in Turkey until 1995.
Is president of the American Institute of Iranian Studies until 1996.
Publishes “Reading Nasta’liq, Persian and Urdu Hands from 1500 to the Present.”
Is president of the American Institute of Pakistani Studies until 2005.